Bikaner, heart of western Rajasthan, has been known as the “Tapo-Bhumi” of great sages and saints of yore since pre-historic times. The holy rivers Saraswati and Drishadwati used to flow in their glory in this area. Archeologist believe that the great Indian desert, the Thar, of which Bikaner is a part, was once an ocean, a belief which stands substantiated by the presence of sedimentary layers of various kinds of the precious clay, bajri etc. in the holy Kolayat area (55 km from Bikaner). Over the times major geographic and topographic changes took place when the sacred rivers dried up and the ocean receded .The region then gradually changed into ocean of deserts. Flora and fauna of the place typically reflects that of the desert .Trees are short with thin leaves to avoid water losses and have deep roots.
During the month of May-June thunderstorms are frequent post noon. Sometimes the wind may blow up to 120 kms per hour and may result in heavy disaster. Average no. of storm days is around 18 per year which is falling gradually due to increase in area under canal irrigation.

Mines and Minerals

Mines and Minerals available in the region explain geography of the city. Gypsum, Lignite ( at Palana-deposits pertaining to tertiary era-approx. 20 million tones) ,Limestone, Red sandstone and multani mitti are the key deposits of the region.
ONGC explorations are in process for oil & gas deposits in the Khajuwala tehsil of the region.

Agriculture & Irrigation

Prior to the canal irrigation, agriculture in the region was highly relying on the elusive rain. But with the advent of INDIRA GANDHI CANAL (world’s longest irrigation canal), the scenario is changing drastically. The key produces now are wheat, cotton, mustard, bazra, moth, groundnut etc.

Abridge Geographical Data of Bikaner
Longitude Between 71º54′ and 74º12′ east
Latitude Between 27°11′ and 29º 3′ north
Area 27244 sq. kms.
Altitude 238 mts. above sea level
Population 6,42,550 (1991 census)
Temperature Max ºC Min ºC
Summer 48 28
Winter 22 4
Rainfall 25 cm approx. (annual.)
Languages Hindi, Rajasthani & English

Animal Husbandry

Despite the desert terrain Bikaner is still regarded as the key producer of milk in the country. Camel breed of this region is the best riding camel in the world. Here is the Asia’s largest camel breeding farm.


Flourishing industry of the place is bhujia and papad (food products) and Tourism. Ceramic industry is growing fast. Woolen industry (Carpet-weaving) also adds to the economy of place. Read More